Basic Concepts

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1. Father of modern pharmacology – Oswald Schmiedeberg
2. Father of chemotherapy- Paul Ehrlich
3. Father of Pharmacognosy- Theophrastus
4. First complied pharmacopeia- Valerius Cordus
5. Father of Indian Pharmacology- Sir Col. Ram Nath Chopra

6. Father of modern Veterinary Pharmacology- L. Meyer Jones
7. Penicillin – Alexander Fleming
8. Pharmacognosy- identifying drugs of animal and vegetable origin
9. Pharmacy- collection, compounding and dispensing of drugs
10. Physical Therapeutics- use of light heat etc. for treatment

11. Heliotherapy- use of sunlight
12. Hydrotherapy- use of water
13. Placebo- calcium lactate, dextrose
14. Extemporaneous pharmacy – by professional, based on experience
15. Galenical- based on crude drug

16. Drug= drogue (French)- dry herb
17. Pro-drug- inert drug precursor
18. Dosage- Dose+ frequency+ duration
19. Chemical name- according to chemical nomenclature
20. Non- proprietary name- easy and to identify particular drug (ex. names used in textbook)

21. Pharmacokinetics- what BODY does to drug
22. Pharmacodynamics- what DRUG does to body
23. Drug transportation methods-
a. Passive diffusion and filtration
b. Specialized methods
c. Carrier-mediated
d. Pinocytosis
24. Bioavailability- how much drug reached systemic circulation out of administered
25. Mechanisms of drug action-
a. physical action
b. chemical action
c. through enzymes
d. through receptors

26. Agonist- activates receptor (to produce and effect)
27. Antagonist – prevents (above action) of agonist on receptors
28. Potency of drug- amount required to produce particular effect of desired intensity
29. Efficacy- capacity of drug to produce an effect
30. Therapeutic index= LD50/ED50

31. Metrology- study of weights and measures
a. Metric system
b. Empirical/ avoirdupois system
c. Troy/ apothecaries system
32. Posology- study of drug dosage
33. Drops- for instillation in body cavities with dropper
34. Enemas- for rectal route
35. Irrigations- to rinse body cavities

36. Liniments- for rubbing on skin
37. Lotions- for skin without rubbing
38. Cream- for gentle rubbing on skin
39. Electuaries- for smearing on tongue, lips, palate
40. Insufflations- to blow a powder in body cavity

41. Pessaries- for vagina
42. Suppositories- insertion in body cavities other than mouth
43. Spanules- suspended release capsules
44. O W Holmes- coined term anesthesia
45. Volatile general anesthesia- Ether, chloroform, halothane, methoxy flurane

46. Gaseous general anesthesia- Nitrous oxide, cyclopropane
47. Stages of anesthesia-
a. I- Voluntary excitement/ analgesia
b. II- Involuntary excitement/ delirium
c. III- Surgical anesthesia (planes)
i. Eyes roll then fix
ii. Loss of corneal and laryngeal reflexes
iii. Pupils dilate, light reflex lost
iv. Intercostal paralysis, shallow respiration
d. IV- Medullary paralysis and death
48. Bulk-forming purgatives- methyl cellulose, wheat/rice bran, agar, acacia
49. Saline/ osmotic purgatives- MgSO4, sodium sulphate/phosphate
50. Stimulant/irritant purgatives
a. Anthraquinone (emodin)- Cascada Sagrada, senna, aloe, rhubarb, danthron
b. Diphenylmethane derivatives- phenolphthalin
c. Irritant oil- castor/ linseed/ olive oil

51. Intestinal lubricants- mineral oil, liquid paraffin
52. Osmatic diuretics- mannitol
53. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors- aceta/methazolamide, dichlorphenamide
54. Natriuretic diuretic- benzothiadiazides
55. Acidifying salts diuretics- NH4Cl

56. Aldosterone antagonist diuretics- spironolactone, canrenone
57. Mercurial diuretics- mersalyl, mercury phylline, calomel/mercurous chloride
58. Potassium sparing diuretics- amiloride, triamterene
59. Loop diuretics- frusemide, ethacrynic acid
60. Xanthine diuretics- Theophylline, aminophylline, caffeine

61. Oxytocics/ ecbolics-stimulate contraction of uterus
a. Oxytocin, prostaglandins, ergots, carbachol
62. Tocolytics/ uterine spasmolytics, relaxants
a. Isoxsuprine, salbutamol, terbutaline, ritodrine, orcepranaline
63. Autacoids- local hormones
a. Amine autacoids- histamine, 5HT
b. Peptides- plasma kinins, angitotensins, substance p, vasoactive intestinal polypeptides
c. Lipid derived- eicasonides, platelet activation factor, prostaglandins, leukotriene
64. Antiandrogens- cyproterone acetate, flutamide, finasteride
65. Antiprogestins- mifepristone

66. Antiestrogenics- centchroman, chlomiphene citrate
67. Antispermatogenics- gossypol
68. Bactericidal drugs (at regular conc)
a. Penicillin
b. Cephalosporin
c. Aminoglycosides
d. Trimethoprime/ sulphonamides
e. Nitrofurans
f. Metronidazole
g. Quinolones
69. Bacteriostatic
a. Tetracycline
b. Chloramphenicol
c. Macrolides
d. Lincosanides
e. Spectinomycin
f. Sulphonamides
70. Sulphonamides- prevents utilization of PABA

71. Cell wall and protein synthesis inhibition
a. Chloromycetin
b. Ampicillin
c. Amoxycilin
72. Protein synthesis inhibitors
a. Streptomycin (30s inhibition)
b. Erythromycin
c. Tetracycline
d. Neomycin
e. Furazolidine
73. Anti-tuberculosis drugs
a. First line- isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, streptomycin
b. Second line- thiacetozone, paraamino salicylic acid (PAS), ethionamide, cycloserine, kanamycine, amicasin, capreomycin
c. Recent- ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, rifabutin
74. Antifungal drugs
a. Antibiotic – amphotericin, nystatin, hemycin, natamycin, grisevofulvin (heterocyclic benzofurans)
b. Azoles
i. Imidazoles- clotrimazole, econazoles, miconazole, ketoconazole
ii. Trizoles- fluconazole, itraconazole
c. Others- benzoic acid, salicyclic acid, undecylenic acid, copper sulphate sulphur, gentian violet, dichlorophen, ciclopirox, olamine
75. Anticancer drugs
a. Alkylating agents- nitrogen mustard, ethylenimines, alkyl suphonates, triazines
b. Anti-metabolites – antagonists of folic acid , purines and pyrimidine
c. Antibiotics- actinomycin D, bleomycin, doxorubicin, daunarubicin
d. Radioactive materials – sodium phophate32, sodium iodide 131
e. Hormones- estrogens, androgens, progestins and corticosteroids
f. Miscellaneous- vinca alkaloids , L asparinase, hydroxyurea and procarbazine

76. Antidotes
a. Arsenic- BAL, dimercaprol, sodium thiosulfate
b. Copper – ammonium molybdate+ sodium sulphate
c. Lead- calcium disodium EDTA
d. Molybdenum- copper sulphate
e. Nitrates and nitrites- 1% methylene blue
f. Cyanogenic plant (HCN)- NaNo2 + sodium thiosulfate
g. Oxalates- lime water or dicalcium phosphate
h. Abrus- antiabrin serum
i. Kaner- atropine sulfate, antihistamine
j. Caster- ricin antiserum
k. Sweet clover- vitamin K
l. OC- activated charcoal
m. OP- atropine sulfate, diacetyl monoxime (DAM)
n. Snake bite – mono or polyvalent antivenin therapy
o. Bromine- chloride
p. Urea- vinegar/ 5% acetic acid
q. Mimosine – ferrous sulfate salt

All drugs are poisons, there is none which is not poison, the right dose differentiates a poison and remedy. Paracelsus 


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