Basic Concepts-IV

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  1. Contagious diseases- body to body communication
  2. Sporadic diseases- affects single animal, unpredictable, irregular interval
  3. Enzootic- outbreak in definite area
  4. Epizootic- outbreak in large area
  5. Panzootic- outbreak in countries and continents
  6. Hereditary disease- transmitted through genes, can be traced in one more both parents
  7. Congenital D – at birth
  8. Per acute disease- shortest time period
  9. Teratogen- agents capable of disturbing fetal growth and cause monsters
  10. Teratology- study of monstrosities/ teratogens and mode of action
  11. Anomaly- irregularity in organs/portion of organs
  12. Agenesis- have beginning but could develop
  13. Aplasia- no beginning at all
  14. Atresia- closure of lumen
  15. Acrania- absence of cranial bone/bones
  16. Amelia- absence of one or more limbs
  17. Amorphous- lack of limbs
  18. Anencephalia- absence of brain
  19. Acephalous- absence of head
  20. Hypocephalia- incomplete development of brain
  21. Hemicranias- half head absent
  22. Exencephaly- brain protruding from defective skull
  23. Hydrencephalocele- protruding brain with fluid-filled ventricle
  24. Arhinencephaly- olfactory lobe absent or undeveloped
  25. Agnathia- absence of lower jaw
  26. Anophthalmia- absence of one/both eyes
  27. Abrachiocephalia- absence of forelimbs and head
  28. Abrachia- absence of forelimbs
  29. Adactylia- absence of digits
  30. Cranioschisis- cracks on skull
  31. Cheiloschisis- harelip
  32. Palatoschisis- cleft palate
  33. Rachischisis- cleft in spinal column
  34. Schistorrachis=spina Bifida- cleft in spinal column
  35. Schistosomus- cleft in abdomen
  36. Schistocomus- cleft/defective development in thorax neck and abdominal wall
  37. Cyclopia- fused eyes
  38. Renarcuatus- fused/horseshoe kidneys
  39. Polyotia- more than two ears
  40. Polyodontia- more than usual number of teeth
  41. Polymelia- more than usual number of limbs
  42. Polydacylia- more than usual number of digits
  43. Polymastia- excessive mammary glands
  44. Polythalia- excessive teats
  45. Dextrocardia- heart in right side
  46. Ectopia cardis cervicalis- heart in neck
  47. Teratoma- two or more germ layers
  48. Dermoid- inclusion containing skin, hair, teeth
  49. Odontoid cyst- inclusion containing dental enamel and cement
  50. Odontoma- neoplasm of odontoid cyst
  51. Dentigerous cyst- inclusion with one or more imperfectly formed teeth
  52. Hermaphrodite- both testicular and ovarian tissue present
  53. Pseudohermaphrodite- single type sex glands but other parts of genitalia from both sexes
    1. Male pseudohermaphrodite- testes present
    2. Female P- ovaries present
  54. Monsters= teras
  55. Twins united

Anterior twinning

  1. Dicephalus- two separate heads
  2. Diprosopus-only double face
  3. Pygopagus- united in pelvic region with bodies side by side
  4. Ischiopagus- united in pelvic region with bodies at obtuse angle

Posterior twinning

  1. Craniopagus- bodies at acute angle, brains separated
  2. Cephalothoracopagus- union of head and thorax
  3. Dipygus- doubling of posterior extremities

Almost complete twinning

  1. Thoracopagus- united only at thorax
  2. Prosopothoracopagus- thorax, abdomen, head, and neck united
  3. Rachipagus- thorax and lumbar part of spine united
  1. Parasite- comparatively well-developed monster with ill-developed partner
  2. Autosite condition- ill-developed partner partially imbedded in well-developed partner


  1. Coarctation of aorta- narrowing
  2. Mulberry heart disease – diectatic microangiopathy (pig)
  3. Thrush breast or tigroid heart- intracellular deposits of fat in cardiac muscles
  4. Mural endocarditis- inflammation of heart wall
  5. Varicose veins- venous dilatation at weaker walls
  6. Cardiac tamponade- blood accumulates, clots in pericardium affecting dilatations
  7. Patent ductus arteriosus- a communication channel between fetal pulmonary artery and aorta remains open after birth
  8. Patent foramen ovale= blue babies in humans= fetal interatrial opening fails to close after


  1. Tetralogy of Fallot-(Fallot was a French physician)
    1. Stenosis of pulmonary valve
    2. Dextraposition of aorta
    3. Intervetricular septal defect
    4. Hypertrophy of right ventricle
  2. Ectopia vesicae- abnormally placed urinary bladder
  3. Ectopia cardis- heart placed in abdominal or neck region
  4. Ectopic pregnancy- extrauterine gestation
  5. Acardia- congenital absence of heart
  6. Diplocardia- double heart
  7. Hydropericardium- accumulation of straw-colored fluid in pericardial space
  8. Hemopericardium- accumulation of blood in pericardial space
  9. Pyopericardium- accumulation of pus in pericardial space
  10. Pneumopericardium- accumulation of gas in pericardial sac
  11. Cor-rugosum= shaggy (rough) heart= bread and butter appearance= excessive fibrin deposition
  12. Cor pulmonale- heart disease following disease of lung
  13. Arteriosclerosis- hardening of arteries
  14. Atherosclerosis- stenosis (due to lipid, fibroid, calcium deposition in wall of blood vessel)
  15. Chylothorax- accumulation of lymph-like fluid in thoracic cavity
  16. Aneurysm- dilation of vessel wall due to weakening
    1. True A- sac formed by blood vessel wall
    2. False A- sac is NOT formed by blood vessel wall
    3. Fusiform A- dilatation along the length (common in aorta and its branches)
    4. Saccular A- pouch formation on one side of blood vessel
    5. Dissecting A- hemorrhage in media layer leading to increased thickness
    6. Circoid A- mass of dilated, pulsating and intercommunicating vessels (common in sub cut location)
    7. Arteriovenosus A- artery and vein injured, communicated
    8. Mycotic A- BACTERIAL infection leading to weakening of wall
    9. Miliary/ Berry A- locally dilated small arteries (common in cranium)
    10. Parasitic A- aneurysm in anterior mesenteric artery in horse (due to S. Vulgaris)
  17. Polyarteritis/periarteritis nodosa- collagen disease affecting all three layers of blood vessels seen in hypersensitivity reaction
  18. Ostium primum- a common arterial chamber partially divided by membranous structure leaving an opening
  19. Ostium secundum- defect in dorsal portion of first membrane in common atrial chamber during embryonic life
  20. Cardiac failure- inability of heart to maintain normal circulation
  21. Extramedullary hemopoiesis- RBC formation in liver and spleen following hemolytic anemia
  22. Granulocytopenia- reduced granulocytes in circulation
  23. Anisocytosis- variable SIZE of RBC
  24. Pessary cells=Annulocytes- RBC with narrow ring of Hb around large pale central area
  25. Basophilic stippling- dark inclusion bodies in RBCs (lead poisoning, parasitic infection)
  26. Acanthocyte = Burr = Spur cells= Spiny/speculated RBCs (autoimmune hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, uremia)
  27. Basket cells- ruptured degenerative immature neutrophil
  28. Band/stab form- granulocyte with un-segmented ribbon-like, non-filament curved or bend nucleus
  29. Granulopoiesis- process of granulocyte formation
  30. Granulocytosis- increased number of granulocytes in blood
  31. Heinz bodies- erythrocyte refractile bodies
  32. Howell-jolly bodies- nuclear remnants or pathogenic inclusions (anemia, lead poisoning)
  33. Hypochromasia- decreased intensity of staining
  34. Discocyte – biconcave disc of RBC (normal)
  35. Leptocyte- thin erythrocyte of decreased volume
  36. Meniscocyte= drepanocyte- crescent shaped RBCs (in sickle cell anemia)
  37. Poikilocytosis- variable SHAPED RBCs
  38. Target cell=codocyte= RBC with central dark area surrounded by clear ring
  39. Polycythemia- increased number of circulating RBCs
  40. Oligocythemia- decreased number of circulating RBCs
  41. Pernicious / Addison’s anemia- failure to absorb Vit B12
  42. Penia= decrease
  43. Philia- increase
  44. –cytosis= increase
  45. Poeisis= production
  46. Dohle’s bodies- bluish staining bodies in neutrophilic leukocytes
  47. –mia= related to blood
  48. Rouleaux formation- stacking of RBCs due to serum globulin changes
  49. Smudge cells= damaged lymphocytes (chronic lymphocytic leukemia)
  50. –ectesis= dilation
  51. –stenosis= constriction
  52. Maedi= dyspnea
  53. Cells of tripier – in interstitial pneumonia fibrous thickening of alveolar septa
  54. Asteroid body- mycotic pneumonia

If you fell down yesterday, stand up today. H. G. Wells





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