Basic concepts III

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  1. Antigen – substance that triggers detectable immune response
    1. Exogenous antigen- foreign antigenic substances
    2. Endogenous antigen- own body components acts as antigen
  2. Cell-mediated immunity-  T lymphocytes
  3. Humoral/antibody-mediated immunity- B lymphocytes
  4. Active immunity
    1. Natural active- during an infection
    2. Artificial active- vaccine
  5. Passive immunity
    1. Natural passive- maternal antibodies transfer
    2. Artificial passive- immune sera  
  6. Anaphylaxis
    1. immediate hypersensitivity
    2. mediated by mast cells
  7. Smallest antibody- IgG
  8. Allergy- altered (increased) state of immune reactivity   
  9. Antitoxin- protective antibodies against  specific toxic proteins of bacteria
  10. Toxoid- antigenic but nontoxic derivative of toxins
  11. Hapten- can bind with antibody but cannot induce immune response
  12. Immunogen- a substance which can induce immune reaction
  13. Capping- cell surface antigen moves toward one pole  when combined with antibody
  14. Opsonin-  enhance phagocytosis (like Jam on a bread, yummy!!!!)
  15. Complement – primary humoral mediator of antigen-antibody reactions
  16. J chain of Ig- cysteine-rich polypeptide of 15Kda
  17. B lymphocyte differentiation (mammals)- fetal liver and bone marrow of adult
  18. Gall bodies- lipid-filled lysosomes in lymphocyte
  19. Lymphocyte markers
    1. Lineage markers- CD3- exclusively on T cells
    2. Maturation marker- CD1- cells of thymus (absent in blood)
    3. Activation marker – IL2, CD25- appear only after antigenic stimulation
  20. Macrophage
    1. CD14- binds LPS
    2. CD64- opsonisation
  21. Alfa and beta interferon- tumor control
  22. Migration inhibition factor
    1. Secreted by T cells
    2. To prevent macrophage migration from site of inflammation 
  23. Side chain theory- Paul Ehrlich
  24. Robert Koch- delayed type hypersensitivity
  25. Medawar- Immunological basis of graft rejection 
  26. Allergy- coined by Ciemen and Pirquit
  27. Severe combined immunodeficiency(SCID)-
    1. Stems cells cant differentiate into T and B cells
    2. Arabian foals
  28. Chediak Higashi syndrome
    1. Cattle- fusion of primary and secondary granules(neutrophil)
    2. Reduced chemotaxis
  29. Azathroprine– reduces graft rejection
  30. Cooms and Gells–  4 types of hypersensitivity
  31. Atopy- when individual produces more IgE.
  32. Main shock organs
    1. Cattle- lungs
    2. Dog- liver
  33. Alarmins- tissue substances (PAMP) released from damaged tissue to evoke immune response
  34. PAMP- Pathogen Associated Molecular Pattern
  35. C3 complement- highest concentration in serum
  36. Class Ib – highly polymorphic
  37. Payers patches
    1. Ileum- ruminant, horse, dogs humans
    2. Ileum and jejunum- rabbits, rodents
  38. Motheaten mice- T cell defect
  39. Red kidney bean- phyto-hemaglutinin
  40. Super antigen– can bind to specific antibody in variable regions/sites
  41. Tensilon test- myasthenia gravis
  42. Bullous pamphigoid– type XVII collagen

 It does not matter how slowly you go as long as you do not stop-Confucius

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