Basic Concepts-II

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1. Vitamins synthesized in body
          a. Vit D-steroids
          b. Biotin & vit K – intestinal microflora
2. Retinol- transport / most important form of vit A
3. Bodies more than 90% vit A is stored in liver
4. George Wald – Nobel prize for discovery of visual process
5. 14-hydroxyretinol- immunostimulator

6. Night blindness = nyctalopia
7. Failure of optic foramina to develop during embryonic stage–deficiency of vit A
8. Vit A deficiency- increases intracranial pressure
9. Alfa-1 globulin- vitamin D binding protein
10. Most active form of vit D- 1,25 dihydroxy vit D

11. Very less vit D is transferred from mother to foetus
12. Excess vit D- tissue calcium deposition
13. Alfa tocopherol– most active and available form of vit E
14. Nervous tissue is primary target of vit E deficiency
15. Nutritional myopathy- vit E and selenium deficiency

16. Yellow fat disease in pig- ration low in tocopherol
17. Crazy chick disease- vit E deficiency
18. Vit K – discovered by Henrik Dam in chicken
19. Sulpha drug- negative effect on vit K absorption
20. Functionally active form of vit B1- thiamine pyrophosphate

21. Amprolium- vit B1 destroyer
22. Star gazing/opisthotonus- thiamine deficiency
23. Death in shell- riboflavin deficiency (required for optimal hatchability)
24. Riboflavin is produced in caeca and large intestine of poultry
25. Niacin is produced form tryptophan, in caeca and large intestine of poultry

26. Pellagra- Niacin/tryptophan deficiency
27. Canine pellagra- black tongue
28. Pantothenic acid- chick anti-dermatitis factor
29. Goose stepping gait in pigs- pantothenic acid deficiency
30. Biotin is produced in caeca and large intestine of poultry

31. Biotin binder– aflatoxin
32. Parrot beak condition- biotin deficiency
33. Choline= vit B7=vit B4
34. Perosis in poultry- choline deficiency
35. Vit C synthesis-
          a. Mammals- liver
          b. Poultry- kidneys

36. Cage layer fatigue- Calcium deficiency
37. Phosphorus –
          a. Deficiency- pica
          b. Excess- bran disease in horse (due to altered Ca:P)
38. Grass tetany/grass staggers/wheat poisoning- Mg deficiency
39. Chondrodystrophy in birds occurs due to deficiency of
          a. Choline
          b. Biotin
          c. Folicin
          d. Zinc
          e. Pyridoxine
40. Hypochromic normocytic anemia- iron deficiency
41. Glutathione peroxide(free radicle control)- selenium
42. Most toxic trace mineral selenium
43. Bobtail disease chronic selenium toxicity
44. Parakeratosis in pigs- zinc deficiency
45. Zinc deficiency – immunosuppression in birds
46. Ceruloplsmin – active form of copper
47. Copper deficiency
          a. Steely wool in sheep
          b. Enzootic ataxia
          c. Swayback
         d. Falling disease
48. Cobalt deficiency anemia-
          a. Hill sickness (new Zealand )
          b. Wasting disease (Australia)
          c. Enzootic marasmus (Australia)
          d. Pine (England)
          e. Grand traverse disease (US)
49. Blood clot in egg albumin- vit A deficiency
50. Deformed keel bone in caged layer- vit D deficiency
51. Hemorrhages in pectoral and thigh muscle of bird- vit E deficiency
52. Curled toe paralysis- vit B2/riboflavin deficiency
53. Fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome- older birds
54. Fatty liver kidney syndrome- younger birds
55. Jerking motion of feet and head in chicks- vit B6 deficiency 
56. Spraddle leg posture- Ca and P deficiency
57. Heat stress- cooked breast+ liver hemorrhages
58. Abrasion- removal of superficial layer of skin
59. Laceration-
          a. Intact blood vessels
          b. irregular edges
60. Incision-
          a. Broken blood vessels
          b. Regular edges

61. Puncture wound
          a. Penetrating (आर)
          b. Perforating (आरपार)
62. Concussion- functional disturbance
63. Stricture- stenosis due to connective tissue
64. Volvulus- rotation of small intestine around mesenteric attachment
65. Torsion- twisting of organ
66. Eventration- tear in ventral abdominal wall causing intestines to protrude out
67. Heat stroke- excess heat retention
68. Thermal burn- excess heat application
69. Burn- coagulative necrosis
70. Degree/grading of burn
          a. Primary- hyperemia, erythema, mild inflammation
          b. Secondary- blister
          c. Tertiary- complete necrosis, severe inflammation
          d. Quaternary- complete charring

71. Shock- most common complication of burn
72. Dry necrosis- excess cold
73. Photosensitization- light of wavelength 540-600 nm
74. Primary photosensitization-
          a. Phenothiazine
          b. Tetracycline
          c. Suphonamide
75. Caisson disease- sudden decrease in pressure

76. Brisket disease/ high altitude sickness- low atmospheric pressure
77. Most susceptible to radiation (labile/continuously dividing )-
          a. Bone marrow
          b. Lymphoid tissue
          c. Mucosa of gastrointestinal tract
78. Radio resistant– erythrocytes (non dividing cells)
79. Basic components of tumors-
          a. Parenchyma- neoplastic cells
          b. Supporting tissue- non neoplastic cells
80. Dermal cyst tumors- only one germ cell layer
81. Teratoma- two or more germ layers
82. Teratoma- common in testicle and ovaries
83. Malignant mesenchyma– sarcoma
84. Malignant epithelium – carcinoma
85. Mesoderm- both sarcoma and carcinoma

86. Desmoplasia- dense abundant fibrous stroma
87. Scirrhous tumors- desmoplastic
88. Encephaloid tumours– soft (opposite to scirrhous)
89. More benign- adult like cells
90. More malignant – embryoinal or immature cells

91. Anaplasia- backward development (toward embryonal stages)
92. H/E stain
           a. Benign- less dark
           b. Malignant- dark
93. Bizarre nuclei- anaplasia
94. Dysplasia- loss of architecture of individual as well as orientation
95. Not all benign tumors are capsulated
96. Tumor spread-
          a. Haematogenous- sarcoma
          b. Lymphatogenic-carcinoma
          c. Seeding- common in peritoneum and CNS
97. Sarcoma- common in young ones
98. Carcinoma- common in older
99. Tumor initiators- polycyclic Hydrocarbons
100. Tumor promoters- phenols

101. Ames test- estimation of mutagenic potential
102. Chemically induced tumors- mutation in ras gene is common
103. Aflatoxin B1- mutation of TP53 gene (suppressor)
104. UV light- formation of pyrimidine and mutation in TP53 gene
105. Concept of immune surveillance- Thomas and Burnet

106. First line of defense against tumors – Natural killer cells
107. Cachexia- wasting syndrome
108. Para neoplastic syndrome- symptoms other than cachexia, hyperkalemia is most common
109. Staging of cancer is superior over grading
110. Papanicolaou stain- cytological smears

111. Sarkos– flesh
112. Neoplasm of cartilage- sheep
113. Sticker tumors- vaginal granuloma in bitch
114. Vaginal granuloma- M.A. Novinsky
115. Vaginal granuloma- 1 to 6year age

116. Mast cell tumors- 6 to 12 year age
117. Telangiectasis- dilatation of preexisting vessel (cattle liver)
118. Haemartia– developmental defect in vascular system common in white leghorn
119. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia – B lymphocyte
120. Psammoma- meningioma with center of calcified body like sand

121. Epithelia pearls/ cell nests- squamous cell carcinoma
122. Rodent ulcer- basal cell carcinoma
123. Adenocarcinoma-
       a. Hen- ovary
       b. Cattle- uterus
124. Cryptorchids– testicular tumours
125. Embryonal nephroma = nephroblastoma= Wilm’s tumor – common in pigs

126. Hypernephroma- undifferentiated renal carcinoma
127. Benign teratoma- common in horses.


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